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Citibank, founded in 1812, used to be known as the City Bank of New York, which was later changed to the First National City Bank of New York. These days, Citibank is a very large, international bank. Citibank is part of the financial giants Citigroup, which is one of the biggest companies in the world. Citibank is better known as the consumer banking arm of this economic giant. Citibank was the largest bank in the United States in terms of holding in 2007. In 2009, they are still close to being the top bank in the United States.

The first person to own and manage the City Bank of New York in 1812 was a man by the name of Samuel Osgood. Samuel Osgood was previously the Postmaster General of the United States. It was not long before the management of this bank was taken over by Moses Taylor. Moses Taylor was a protege of John Jacob Astor who was a nineteenth century business giant. During the time that Taylor was head of the bank, this establishment was mainly a treasury and finance center for Taylor’s business conglomeration. More than fifty years later, in 1863, this bank joined the United States’ newest national banking system and was then known as National City Bank of New York. In 1897, this bank was the first ever to establish a foreign department and a year prior to this it was also the first contributor to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Not only does this bank have these firsts to brag about, but it was also the first bank to open an overseas office. In 1914, a branch of National City was opened in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A few years later in the year 1919, this bank was also the first bank to have one billion dollars in assets, which at the time was very impressive. In 1921, Charles E. Mitchell was elected president of the company and was made chairman in 1929. During the time that Mitchell ran the company, the bank expanded rapidly.

It was not until the 1970s that Citibank took on the name that it still has today. First National City Bank and the First National City Corporation were renamed Citibank and Citicorp. When this transition happened, all the shareholders of the bank were then shareholders of the new corporation. In November of 2008, Citibank had to be rescued by the United States government. There was an initial aid of twenty-five billion given to this corporation. There was another twenty-five billion invested in them afterwards. The Citigroup corporation now has about three hundred and six billion dollars in risky assets. As of now, Citibank is working on stabilizing itself once more in this economy. You can find branches of Citibank in over one hundred countries around the world. The larger part of Citibank’s offices that are in the United States can be found mostly in New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles and a few other major cities. This financial institutions offers not only all the standard banking transactions, but they also offer investment products, insurance and credit cards.


Citibank Brand History

Founded in 1851, the Reuters news agency is one of the oldest players in this industry, and its presence is felt in almost every corner of the globe, providing quality reporting on events occurring in different parts of the world to broadcasters and other media outlets.

The organization was once involved in the provision of financial market data, and its news reporting revenues in those days accounted for less than 10% of its income. As many would recall, it used to concentrate on providing financial markets with relevant market information and various other trading products such as currency rates, share prices, trading systems including research and analytics.

Reuters supplied consumers of business information with professional analyses of 40,000 companies, debt instructions and regular economic updates alongside other players in the domain such as Dow Jones Newswires now (now Thomson Reuters) and Bloomberg L.P.

Reuters' tentacles reach almost every major news outlet, operating in 200 cities in 94 countries offering up to date new text in about 20 languages. The news agency's operations are bound by the Reuters Trust Principles which are designed to preserve its independence, integrity and freedom from biased reporting.

And to cater for this purpose a Reuters Founders Share Company Ltd was formed in 1984 with the aim of protecting its integrity by keeping the actions of its stakeholders in check.

It is part of the share float, holding a single but very powerful 'Founders Share' capable of outvoting all other shares, as a means of countering any hostile attempt to alter rules binding the news outfit, such as the limits on share holding for any individual (no-one exceeds 15%). The news agency ventured briefly into radio news broadcasting in the 1990's with London based radio stations - London news 97.3FM and London news Talk 1152 AM.

The company set up its very own Reuters Radio News in 2007, and went on to sign a merger agreement with the Thomson Corporation of Canada with Thomson controlling at least 53% of the new entity (Thomson Reuters), and saw instigation of the 15% limit rule waiver.

The waiver was necessitated by some poor financial performance at the time, and the Founders Share Company decided that it was appropriate to sacrifice the rules in order to save the company's future.

The men and women who have served Reuters as journalists have contributed diligently to bringing up to date news coverage to the world, and in some instances have paid the ultimate price in a quest to achieve this objective, in dangerous locations experiencing wars or some other form of upheaval. Kurt Shark was killed in Sierra Leone in 2000, while Mazen Dana and Taras Prostyak were killed in Iraq in 2003 among others. But still the Reuters reporters wagon continues to trundle even when the odds are downright perilous.


Reuters History

The company was founded in 1920, in Wilmslow,Manchester, as Humphrey Brothers Clothing; in 1924, the company changed its name to Umbro, a contraction of its previous name, Humphrey Brothers.

As one of the earliest kit suppliers to professional clubs, Umbro's early successes included the kitting out of the Manchester City team which won the FA Cup in 1934 and from the 1950's, Umbro were official kit suppliers to a growing number of national and club sides including the Brazil World Cup winning teams or 1958, 62 and 1970.

In 1966, all but one of the 16 teams wore Umbro, with England lifting the trophy in their famous red Umbro kit! In 1985, in Brazil, Umbro introduced its first football boot, which went into production two years later.

Umbro also manufactured a popular style of shorts, which reached its peak in the late 1980s and early 1990s. They were made of nylon, had a drawstring waistband, and often came in bright colors

These shorts, nicknamed "Umbros", are football shorts, intended to be part of a football strip. With the growth of youth soccer leagues in the United States in the 1980s, many youths, teens, and young adults began wearing them as everyday clothing. Like football itself, they were equally popular among both genders. At the height of the fashion, other brands of football shorts, such as Adidas, Diadora, Hummel, Lotto, Mitre, and Xara, also became popular. However, by the mid 1990s, Umbros began to lose their appeal among youth to other styles, such as cargo shorts.

In the 1990s, the company relocated from its central Manchester facility to brand-new, state-of-the-art headquarters in Cheadle, on the outskirts of Manchester.

In 2004/5, Umbro is official kit supplier to national sides such as England, Ireland, Norway and Sweden, and also to a host of top club sides including Chelsea, Celtic, Lyon and Everton. In 2004, Umbro signed a 15-year deal with Real Madrid and England star Michael Owen. A host of other current England stars use and endorse Umbro boots including Alan Shearer, John Terry and David James

Umbro is one the English Football Association's five "FA Partners". Umbro currently are the official sports manufacturer of the English FA Cup and official sponsor of the new Wembley Stadium .Umbro will partner The FA in the further development of the National Football Centre (NFC) at Burton–upon–Trent, becoming the title sponsor of the Centre. Umbro is also the exclusive supplier of footballs to The FA at all levels of the game

Umbro have also manufactured kits for Athletics and rugby league.

Umbro has produced kits for many notable football teams since establishment; its first kit was produced in 1934, for Manchester City, which won the FA Cup that year.

Over the years Umbro have also produced kits for major teams including: Arsenal, Club Bolivar, Cruz Azul, Manchester United, Tottenham Hotspur, Chelsea, C.A.Independiente , Liverpool, Aston Villa, Leeds United, Everton, Rangers, Deportivo La Coruña, Olympique Lyonnais, La U, Colo-Colo, Santos, Vasco, Atlético Nacional, Inter Milan, Ajax, Universitario de Deportes, Liga Deportiva Universitaria, Celta Vigo, FC Twente, Málaga CF, CSKA Moscow, Hajduk Split , Dynamo Moscow, Torpedo Moscow, FC Moscow, West Bromwich Albion and Nottingham Forest. From the 2007/2008 season onwards, Birmingham City, Hull City, Sunderland, West Ham United and Heart of Midlothian will also be wearing Umbro kits.

In addition to club teams, Umbro also produced kits for international teams, including Brazil, England, Ireland, Chile, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Mexico, Norway, and Sweden. During the 1966 World Cup, all but one of the 16 participating teams wore Umbro uniforms.

Umbro currently are the official sports manufacturer of the English FA Cup and official sponsor of the new Wembley Stadium. Umbro will partner The FA in the further development of the National Football Centre (NFC) at Burton–upon–Trent, becoming the title sponsor of the Centre. Umbro is also the exclusive supplier of footballs to The FA at all levels of the game

Umbro have also manufactured kits for Rugby Union (the Irish National team and London Irish), Athletics and rugby league.

At the 2006 FIFA World Cup Sweden and England wore Umbro kits.

Umbro Today

The company today specialises in football kits, clothing, and other football apparel, like boots and training kits, and is registered on the London Stock Exchange as UMB.

Its major competitors include Adidas, Lotto, Nike, Puma, and fellow North West England maker Reebok.

UMBRO currently supplies playing and training kit to the England National Team and UMBRO's relevant international licensees currently supply playing and training kit to the national teams of the Republic of Ireland, Sweden and Norway. UMBRO and its relevant international licensees currently supply kit to leading professional clubs worldwide, including Olympique Lyonnais (France), FC Santos (Brazil), Olympiakos (Greece), Shanghai Shenhua (China) and Chelsea (England). The UMBRO brand is also endorsed by high profile individual players including Michael Owen, Michel Salgado, Deco and Alan Shearer.

Internationally, the Group operates principally through a network of 47 licensees who source and distribute products to sports retail customers. The Group works closely with its international licensees to maintain a global and uniform UMBRO brand identity.

Football is the central theme around which all the Group's apparel, footwear and equipment products are developed. UMBRO seeks to capitalise on growth in the worldwide popularity and visibility of football through continued association of its performance product lines with national teams, clubs and players.

Umbro history

1920 - Harold C.Humphrey's starts a small workshop in Wilmslow, Cheshire
1924 - Humphrey Brothers becomes UMBRO - The birth of the Double Diamond
1934 - Manchester City win the FA Cup Final in UMBRO
1935 - Sheffield Wednesday follow the success of Manchester City in UMBRO
1940's - During the war UMBRO switches to shirt production for the armed Forces
1958 - Brazil wins the World Cup wearing UMBRO
1962 - Brazil wins the World Cup wearing UMBRO
1966 - 15 out of the 16 participating teams wear UMBRO
1966 - England win the World Cup wearing UMBRO
1970 - Brazil wins the World Cup in UMBRO
1985 - First UMBRO boot introduced in Brazil
1987 - First UMBRO boot manufactured in Brazil
1992 - Introduction of Pro Training apparel range
1992 - First Speciali introduced
1994 - Brazil wins the World Cup in UMBRO
1999 - Renaissance of UMBRO - new ownership, new vision "UMBRO The Football Authority"
1999 - Manchester United wins the treble in UMBRO
1999 - UMBRO holds 60% stake in USL (United Soccer League)
2000 - UMBRO introduces revolutionary new Sportswool material
2000 - Launch of XAI football boot technology
2001 – Michael Owen wins European Footballer of the Year
2001 – Celtic win Scottish Treble
2002 - Launch of Premier Pro Training
2002 - UMBRO sign a new contract with The English FA extending the relationship until 2010.
2002 - UMBRO develop the first reversible jersey for an international team.
2002 - UMBRO sign the Swedish National Federation
2003 – Olympique Lyonnaise win the French Championships wearing UMBRO
2003 – Playa de Castellon are European Champions for third time
2003 – UMBRO sign the Kenyan National Team
2003 – Brazil win the World Beach Soccer Championships in UMBRO
2003 – Santos, Galatasaray and Olympiakos all win their domestic titles in UMBRO
2003 – UMBRO sign CSKA, Spartak Moscow and Atletico Nacional
2004 – UMBRO celebrate 80 years of footballing history
2004 – UMBRO launch its new brand mission, to inspire & excite the world of Football
2004 – UMBRO launch the X-static technology in kits and technical product.
2005 - Chelsea, Olympique Lyonnais, CSKA Moscow, F.C. Haka, Penerol ans LDU all win their domestic league titles wearing Umbro.
2005 - CSKA Moscow win the UEAFA Cup wearing Umbro.


Umbro History

In July of 1932, the NFL awarded a team to the city of Boston. The ownership group for the new franchise was headed by a man with little football background, George Preston Marshall, who owned a chain of laundromats in Washington, DC. Marshall was known for his flair for promotion and his persuasive communication skills. The team would play at Braves Field, home of Boston's National League baseball team, and so they took the name 'Boston Braves'.

The team lost money in it's inaugural season prompting Marshall to take sole ownership of the team the following year, He moved the team to Fenway Park in July of 1933, and changed the team's official name to the 'Boston Redskins'.

The team's first success came in 1936 when they won the NFL's Eastern Division and earned the right to host Green Bay in the NFL championship game. Marshall was angry with Boston fans for their poor attendance in the team's final home game and in protest, he moved the game to the Polo Grounds in New York. The Redskins gave up their home field advantage and lost 21-6. The team would never play another game in Boston.

Click here for Griffith Stadium InformationIn 1937 Marshall moved the Redskins to Griffith stadium in Washington, D.C. Under the glow of floodlights, the Washington Redskins would become a resounding success story. Marshall's ingenuity and foresight would bring about many new innovations such as the first ever marching band and the first ever fight song 'Hail to the Redskins'. The band still plays to this day and are the only remaining commissioned marching band in the NFL. The song is still heard every time the Redskins score a touchdown.

Click here for Sammy Baugh ProfileThe 1937 season would also see the debut of "Slinging Sammy" Baugh from Texas Christian University. The Skins sixth overall draft pick would throw many passes that year and for many years to come.

Baugh revolutionized the look of pro football offenses forever. He would play 16 seasons, most of it going two ways and for 60 minutes a game, and he would pass for more than 22,000 yards.

Marshall's ingenuity coupled with Sammy's arm, would earn the Redskins their first NFL championship in 1937. In their first nine seasons in Washington, they never had a losing season. In that time they won 5 NFL Eastern Division championships and the NFL championship again in 1942.

The Redskins drew a large following not only in the Washington, D.C. area but around the country. In 1944 they became the first NFL team to have a radio network, and in 1950 they made history again by unveiling its new television network. Fans in many states who didn't have a pro football team to call their own listened to or watched the Redskins at home.

Click here for Griffith Stadium InformationThe Redskins moved out of Griffith and into D.C. Stadium in 1961. The stadium would later have it's name changed to Robert F. Kennedy and would remain the Redskins home until 1996. At RFK stadium, the Redskins would start a string of unprecedented sold out games, that still continues today at Fed Ex Field.

1969 was a year juxtaposed with glory and tragedy. Washington hired legendary coach Vince Lombardi in February, and he would guide the Redskins to their first winning record in 15 years. But along the way they would lose George Preston Marshall, the man who had molded the Redskins. They would also lose Lombardi to cancer before the start of the 1970 season.

George Allen took over in 1971 and was named NFL coach of the year in his first season. The following season, the Redskins made it to the Super Bowl (VII) where they lost to the Miami Dolphins 14-7. The Redskins' best players of that era were quarterback Sonny Jurgensen and wide receiver Charley Taylor, who set a record for most passes caught in a career.

On October 12, 1981, the Redskins hired San Diego Chargers' mastermind offensive co-ordinator Joe Gibbs to take over for Jack Pardee. He became the 17th coach in Redskins history and would go on to become not only the most successful coach, but probably the most revered figure in the franchise's considerable history.

Click here for Russ Grimm's ProfileIn 1982, the NFL Players Association announced the beginning of a union strike. It was the first work stoppage in league history. The regular season resumed on November 20 after eight weeks of games were not played. A total of 98 games were erased as a result of the 57 day strike. Because of the shortened season, the NFL adopted a format of 16 teams competing in a Super Bowl Tournament for the 1982 playoffs. The NFC's number-one seed, Washington, defeated the AFC's number-two seed, Miami, 27-17 in Super Bowl XVII at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, January 30.

The Redskins continued their dominance the following season, going an impressive 14-2 through the regular season, and advancing all the way to Super Bowl XVIII. Not only did they only lose two games, but those two losses were by a combined two points. The bookmakers favored Washington by three, and most expected the Redskins to peel off their second straight Lombardi trophy, but Los Angeles had other ideas. Marcus Allen and the Raiders stunned the burgundy and gold faithful, with a 38-9 thrashing of the Redskins. At the time, the 29-point margin of victory was the largest in Super Bowl history.

In 1985, Jack Kent Cooke took sole ownership of the Redskins; he had purchased a 25 percent share of the team in 1961, and had become majority owner in 1974.

Click here for Ricky Sanders ProfileWashington would not make it as far as the Super Bowl again until after the 1987 season. Ironically, it was a strike-shortened season again as a 24-day strike shrunk the regular season from 16 games to 15 games. Washington went 11-5, before beating the Chicago Bears 21-17 in the divisional playoff, and then the Minnesota Vikings 17-10 in the NFC Championship. The Redskins were actually three-point underdogs for Super Bowl XXII as many expected John Elway and the Denver Broncos, to be able to better Doug Williams and the Washington Redskins. Denver scored less than two minutes into the game and added a field goal on their second drive to stake out a 10-point early lead. What happened after that became widely recognized as the best quarter of football in Redskin history. Williams and his Washington teammates started the second quarter with an 80-yard bomb to Ricky Sanders; it would be the first of FIVE Redskin touchdowns in the quarter. When all was said and done, Williams had put up 228 yards and 4 touchdowns, Timmy Smith had run 5 times for 122 yards and a touchdown, and at 35-10, the game was ostensibly over by half-time. Williams secured a place in history as the first African-American quarterback to ever win the Super Bowl, and the Redskins had their second Lombardi trophy.

Click here for The Hogs sectionIn 1991 the Redskins dominated competition going 14-2 in the regular season. With Mark Rypien at the helm and the Hogs smashing huge holes for Earnest Byner, Washington rolled right into Super Bowl XXVI. They outclassed the Buffalo Bills 37-24 in a game only made close by two late Buffalo TD's when the game was already out of reach. That game capped off a record breaking season for the offensive line who allowed an almost unbelievably low 9 sacks all season long (including playoffs). Washington had secured it's third Lombardi of the decade, with three different quarterbacks.

Click here for Art Monk's ProfileOn October 12, 1992, Art Monk caught a 10 yard pass and stepped out of bounds. It wasn't a particularly notable catch, but it was extremely significant as it moved Monk into first place on the NFL's all time receptions list. He would go on to finish his career with 920 receptions (888 with the Redskins), although his record would eventually be broken by Jerry Rice.

On March 5, 1993 Joe Gibbs, who led the Washington Redskins to 3 Super Bowl victories and 8 playoff appearances in 12 NFL seasons, resigned and was replaced by his longtime assistant, Richie Petitbon. It was the end of an era... well, era one at least.

In 1997 the Redskins moved into a new state-of-the-art stadium in what is now Landover, Maryland; but originally, the community was called Raljon - a name devised by Cooke that combined the names of his sons Ralph and John. Cooke passed away of cardiac arrest at age 84 on April 6,1997, just before the stadium was to open, but posthumously the stadium was named Jack Kent Cooke Stadium in his honor. Cooke's son took over the team following his death, but there were instructions in JKC's will for the team and stadium to be left to his foundation, and with the instructions to sell it.

John Kent Cooke put in a competitive bid to keep the team in the family, but lost to local businessman Daniel Snyder and a team of investors, for a record-setting $800 million. The stadium was renamed Fed Ex Field after Fed Ex paid an astounding 200 million dollars for the naming rights.

On Nov. 27, 2007, Washington safety and young superstar Sean Taylor died as a result of a gun shot suffered in his home. He was just 24 years old.


Washington Redskins History

Visa's history begins in 1958, when Bank of America initiated its BankAmericard program in Fresno, Calif. Originally, the company only planned to provide the system across the state. But in 1965, Bank of America started to subscribe licensing agreements with a collection of banks outside California.

Over the following years, numerous banks nationwide would license the card system from Bank of America. In the late 1960s, Dee Hock, one of the heads of a group of BankAmericard licensee banks, suggested that the banks create an association.

The banks' association would act as a joint venture, enabling members to gain the advantages of a centralized payments system while also competing fairly for their own benefit. Hock became the association's first president.

In 1970, Bank of America passed control of BankAmericard to the various BankAmericard issuer banks which comprised the newly-established NBI, or National BankAmericard, Inc. NBI acted as an independent nonstock corporation that managed, promoted, and developed the BankAmericard system in the U.S.

Bank of America, meanwhile, continued issuing and supporting the international licenses itself. By 1972, licenses had been granted in 15 countries, and in 1974, multinational member corporation IBANCO was established to manage the global BankAmericard program.

The directors of IBANCO decided in 1976 that uniting the numerous international networks into a single global network with one name would be in the corporation's best interests. Still, in many countries, there was hesitancy to issue a card associated with Bank of America, although the connection was somewhat tenuous. As a result, NBI changed the BankAmericard name to Visa U.S.A. in 1976, while IBANCO would become Visa International.

Dee Hock came up with the name Visa, which he considered instantly recognizable in many cultures and languages and suggesting of universal acceptance. Today, Visa stands for the Visa International Service Association.

Visa joined with the PLUS ATM network in 1986, offering its cardholders easy access to cash. As the 1980s wound to a close, greater numbers of banks had begun to offer debit cards to give bank account holders direct access to their money.

In 2006, Visa is a private membership association jointly owned by over 20,000 member financial institutions worldwide. The 1.46 billion Visa cards in circulation generate in excess of $4.3 trillion in sales and are accepted in over 160 countries, for nearly universal reach and popularity.


Visa History

Wal-Mart is a global discount retailer headquartered in Bentonville, a small city in Arkansas, USA. Wal-Mart is the largest public corporation by revenue, it is one of the biggest retailers in the world and its stock is traded in several international stock exchanges. Sam’s Club and Marketside stores are operating divisions of Wal-Mart corporation. In some international markets Wal-Mart stores trade under local names like ASDA in the UK, Bompreço in Brazil, Mi Bodega or Superama in Mexico and Seiyu in Japan.

The history of Wal-Mart is like a curriculum vitae for the corporate founder Sam Walton who started his discount store named Walton’s Five and Dime in 1950. Previously Walton had operated a Ben Franklin store in Newport, Arkansas that he franchised from 1944 until 1950 but afterwards relocated to Bentonville, Arkansas in 1950. He continued his association with Ben Franklin but renamed the store as Walton’s Five and Dime.

Walton owned a small network of Walton’s Five and Dime stores by the late 1950s. They had come to realize that successful discount retailing didn’t just involve getting the best price from suppliers but also meant passing those savings onto customers. Walton’s method basically contrasted with his competition yet the higher volumes sold in Walton’s stores were evidence that he had found a model that would encourage his company to earn greater profits.

Sam Walton owned 11 stores by 1962. Walton and his wife Helen took a huge gamble and reinvested everything they could spare into a new store at Rogers, Arkansas which became the very first Wal-Mart branded store. Their concept was an immediate success leading to spectacular growth of the brand and 24 stores by 1967. In 1969 Sam Walton incorporated the stores as Wal-Mart Stores Inc. and in 1972 the company listed on the New York Stock Exchange and provided a cash injection allowing the company to expand to 125 stores by 1975 and then expand to 276 stores in 1980.

Incorporation was also good for Wal-Mart employees and many were given stock options in return for loyalty to the company. In 1970 Sam Walton started selling shares in his company over the counter to customers. Wal-Mart stock was worth $47 by 1971, it was not enough to make millionaires of Walton’s associates and customers but by 1982 increasing to a staggering $49,875 per share which was enough to pay for college education of the kids. This was an ambition that many of Wal-Mart’s employees were claimed to have held.

Wal-Mart has been conservative in respect of acquisitions with most company expansion coming from new growth. In fact Wal-Mart acquisitions have always been strategic in nature such as the first two takeovers of buying the Mohr Value Stores and Hutcheson Shoe Company in 1977, then in 1981 buying Kuhn’s Big K Stores. It would be another 9 years until Wal-Mart would make another acquisition and this time purchasing The McLane Company.

The internal growth of Wal-Mart has largely come from the group’s many Wal-Mart stores but in 1983 the group opened the first Sam’s Club. This was a membership based discount retailer of bulk goods and the customer reaction to Sam’s Club was initially quite reserved in spite of lower prices, with accusations regarding the suspicious plan to build a database of small business owners who were the primary market for the new brand. Despite the criticism, an aggressive expansion program has seen the brand grow to over 700 outlets although from 2006 Sam’s Club is no longer targeting small business.

Sam Walton remained with the company throughout his life visiting stores and meeting employees even walking around the store with them as they completed their tasks. Walton promised to do the hula wearing a hula skirt outside the NYSE on Wall Street as a gesture of solidarity with employees if the company made a pre-tax profit of 8%. Nobody is sure if the company was already projecting a profit of 8% which would have made Walton’s gesture a simple publicity stunt. Anyway, the determined employees got behind the goal and made it a reality. Sam Walton was presented with the Medal of Freedom in 1992, it was the highest US civilian honor for services to American retail by President Bush Sr. only a few weeks before he passed away. In 1998 Walton was listed in the Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.

After Walton’s death, Wal-Mart experienced several months of negative publicity as speculation mounted that his death and the appointment of his oldest son S. Robson Walton as chairman and a lack of clear direction while the change would result in poor performance. The institutional shareholders played a wait and see game and Wal-Mart’s share price plunged but the uncertainty was short lived and had rebounded by the end of 1992. Wal-Mart had become the first retail company in history pass the $100 billion mark and reported sales of $118 billion by the turn of the century.

Sales and profits continued to climb for Wal-Mart through the early 21st century with no sign of any bad affect from the weakening global economy. The employee groups claim this is due to Wal-Mart’s policy of forcing off-the-clock work to registered employees who claim they are given too much work for their shift and told by management that overtime pay is out of the question. A number of class action suits were brought against Wal-Mart which the company had vigorously defended and lost in many cases. Employee unions are severely restricted from operating within Wal-Mart so the full extent of the claims may never be known but by 2004 Wal-Mart had been ordered to pay fines and repay wages which exceeded $300 million.

Wal-Mart owned 6,775 stores worldwide at the end of 2006, it had over 2 million employees and generated nearly $350 billion of annual sales.


Wal-Mart History

In 1961, a limited number of organizations around the world – such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and The Conservation Foundation – were trying to meet conservation needs, but were desperately short of funds.

A small but influential group of Europeans—scientists, naturalists, business and political leaders—rose to the occasion: on September 11, 1961 World Wildlife Fund was formed and soon set up shop at IUCN’s headquarters in Morges, Switzerland. H.R.H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands became the organization’s first president.

Several leaders arranged the key organizational meeting for the new venture. Those involved include noted biologist and African wildlife enthusiast Sir Julian Huxley, IUCN vice president Sir Peter Scott and director-general of the British Nature Conservancy E. M. Nicholson. The decision was made to establish World Wildlife Fund as an international fundraising organization that will work in collaboration with existing conservation groups to bring substantial financial support to the conservation movement on a worldwide scale. The new organization will raise funds through national appeals and, using the best scientific advice available from IUCN and other sources, channel the money to appropriate organizations. The first call for broad support was the Morges Manifesto, signed in 1961 by 16 of the world’s leading conservationists. The Morges Manifesto stated that while the expertise to protect the world environment existed, the financial support to achieve this protection did not, and that these conditions supported the development of a nongovernmental organization that would work to protect the world's environment.

H.R.H. Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, became president of the British National Appeal, the first national organization in the World Wildlife Fund family. The second national organization to be formed was World Wildlife Fund, Inc. (WWF) – the U.S. appeal. Incorporated in the District of Columbia on December 1, 1961, WWF named Dwight D. Eisenhower its President of Honor. Ira N. Gabrielson and Russell E. Train were the first president and vice president, respectively.

Evolving Ties with the International Network

The almost 50-year evolution of WWF has entailed not only philosophical and organizational changes, but also has yielded a maturing and increasingly productive relationship with the international World Wildlife Fund Network. While WWF in the United States is an independent organization, it plays an increasingly important role in the worldwide conservation programs of the Network. WWF is bound by U.S. tax laws to exercise independent judgment in allocating funds, and its Board has complete authority to determine where and when these funds are spent.

A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), signed in 1992 and revised in 1994 and 1998 by WWF and WWF-International, reflects a comprehensive agreement on the planning and implementation of WWF Network activities. Central to the MOU is the “team approach,” which builds on the work of country teams representing WWF-International, WWF-US and other concerned National Organizations (NOs) in the WWF Network.

In 2003, a new charter was signed by all 30 independent World Wildlife Fund organizations in the Network. Although not a formal legal agreement, the charter set out basic understandings to enable the national organizations to work more closely together in achieving shared conservation goals. Improved Network cooperation took another important step forward in 2006, when a streamlined and more inclusive decision-making structure was agreed to among all organizations. Since 1985, the WWF Network has invested over $1.165 billion in more than 11,000 projects in 130 countries.


World Wildlife Fund History

Jimmy Wales was running a website called Nupedia which requested encyclopedia articles from academics, then took the articles to fellow students for review. They were then posted for free on line. The progress of the website was painstakingly slow and required much labor. After a year the website had a mere twenty one articles. A Nupedia employee by the name of Larry Sanger was called in for assistance. Jimmy Wales had conceived a new idea for the application of this antiquated technology which would convert Nupedia to the now famous Wikipedia.

Wales is said to claim that he is the founder of Wikipedia, however it has been explained by Brian Bergstein of AP (the Associated Press) that Sanger was known as the co-founder as early as 2001. Wiki technology was already being used as a means for anyone to edit computer code. The idea was to take this technology and apply it to information so that its content would be open for editing and adding to by, well, everyone.

It was challenging for Wikipedia to cross reference the encyclopedia facts. Unlike source code, the level of accuracy was questionable. Despite this difficulty Wikipedia became a sensation. Wikipedia's popularity has grown dramatically since it originally went on line on January 15, 2001. It was by means of negative attention that Wikipedia began to get a grip on the minds of many. In an article on Wikipedia it was implied that John Siegenthaler had a hand in the assassination of John F. Kennedy
by someone who had tampered with his biography on Wikipedia. John Siegenthaler wrote an editorial piece for USA Today in which, he called Wikipedia "a flawed and irresponsible research tool." Subsequently Wikipedia has made the web more democratic.

Since Wikepedia biographies are usually updated as soon as new information becomes available it has become a great source for information about notable people. This of course has led to attempts to include material of a promotional nature or for defamatory purposes. It has had its share of controversies. There are quite a few notables whose lives are directly affected by their biography on Wikipedia. Wikipedia is the ninth most frequented site on the internet today. Yet many people do not attach a great deal of value on the Wikipedia website, feeling that because of its open editing ability it must be plagued with errors. However, Wikipedia has been compared to the Encyclopedia Britannica.

Nature took forty articles about science and math and checked them for their level of accuracy. Nature was able to locate four major errors in both the website and the Encyclopedia Britannica. Nature looked for factual errors, omissions and misleading statements. They found 123 in the Britannica and 162 on Wikipedia. This shows that Wikipedia is an accurate encyclopedia. Wikipedia is more than just an idea of everyone sharing data. An actual community has been formed around Wikipedia.

Wikipedians as they are known to be called spend extremely long hours on their articles. There are two hundred thousand people registered as users on Wikipedia but only thirty three hundred of those do seventy percent of the work. It is definite that this is a community. There are those who have contributed thousands and thousands of articles. Wikipedians vote on what makes it to the front page to be a featured article. To this day, Wikipedia enjoys growth with 5 million registered editor accounts. Wikipedia. The website continues to garner it's visibility in the press and is slowly gaining traction as a tertiary source for serious content as well as current events.


Wikipedia History

Microsoft's Xbox is a newer name in the video game console market. Critics of the Xbox thought that the console would never compare to the leaders in the industry. But years later, Microsoft's console has proven to be one of the top three video game consoles and has shown that it is here to stay. The console's success is due, in part, to the popular "Halo" game franchise, which is exclusive to the Xbox game console.

Announcement and Demonstration
On March 10, 2000, Bill Gates, the CEO of Microsoft Corporation, announced the company's plans to manufacture a new video game console during the Game Developers Conference. The Xbox console was said to be three times more powerful than the leading video game console of the day. A few month later, Microsoft demonstrated what the Xbox console could do at the E3 entertainment conference to a crowd. At this point, Microsoft only had tech demos and needed a game to fully show how the Xbox would function. So, at the E3 conference, Microsoft and the developers of an obscure but impressive game called Halo first get together for mutual benefit. Microsoft needed a game to fill an empty spot in the Xbox demo lineup, and the Halo developers needed a big name to jumpstart an advertisement program for their game.

Xbox Gains Support

Before the Xbox was officially released, Microsoft had gained the support of over 150 game developers, including two of the biggest: EA and Sega. Due to remarkable teamwork between Microsoft and EA, several Xbox games, including the NASCAR franchise, would be ready to be released before the Xbox itself was released. Gaining the support of Sega gave gamers in Japan a reason to be interested in the Xbox.

Release Dates
The original Xbox was released in North America on November 14, 2001. Despite Nintendo releasing the GameCube only three days later, Microsoft sold over 1 million units in the first three weeks after the release date. This is a huge accomplishment, especially considering the critics who said that the console was too expensive and too ugly and that the controllers were too big. Because of the teamwork between Microsoft and game-developing companies, several big label games such as "Halo" and "Dead or Alive 3" are released at the same time, so many consumers not only bought the Xbox console, but also several games.

The game console was not as well received in Japan. After the Japan release date of February 22, 2002, only 123,000 units sold in the first week, and many stores began discounting the Xbox during the first month. In Europe, the Xbox had more success. Though slow to start selling after the release date of March 14, 2002, Xbox sales rapidly increased, helped by the popularity of the "Halo" game.

Xbox console sales were further helped by a dramatic price cut just a month after the original release. Microsoft dropped the price of the Xbox from $299 to $199, which brought the price to a level that many households could afford.

Xbox Live
In November 2002, a year after the original release of the Xbox console, Microsoft began an online gaming service called Xbox Live. This service allows gamers to play with others from around the world, as well as allowing consumers to download games to their Xbox console straight from the Internet. This service proved popular, as Microsoft announced in July 2005 that 2 million gamers used the Xbox Live service.

Xbox 360
The successor to the original Xbox, called Xbox 360, was released on November 22, 2005. This release date was nearly a full year before the other game consoles in its generation were released. The Xbox 360 features wireless controllers and compatibility with older games made for the original Xbox.

Today and the Future
As of February 2010, there are more than 23 million gamers using the Xbox Live gaming service. The year 2010 is predicted to be the best year in Xbox gaming history, due to the release of several high profile games, including "Halo: Reach," which is the prequel to "Halo," the best selling Xbox game franchise.


Xbox History

Yahoo which is officially spelled with an exclamation mark, is a world famous American company that runs a popular website where people do searches, read the news, check their emails or even use its instant messaging service for communication. You may have used at least one of the products of Yahoo! yourself or at least have seen its name on someone's email address.

Yahoo! has very interesting history. It all began sometime in January 1994 when two Electrical Engineering graduate students at Stanford University, Jerry Yang and David Filo began a project known originally as "Jerry and David's Guide to the World Wide Web". In April of the same year, the project was renamed "Yahoo!". Yahoo was the acronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle". The original URL for Yahoo! was

The next year Yahoo! had the domain name that we know today, Jerry and David incorporated Yahoo! on March 1, 1995. The both appointed as their first . The new company got its funding at first with help of Sequoia Capital who helped to raise almost 3 million dollars and then by by selling 2.6 million shares at thirteen dollars each at their first public offering on April 12, 1996 which raised 33.8 million dollars. With the amount of money raised, Yahoo! was able to operate and expand.

The email portal currently run by Yahoo! is not Yahoo!'s original. Yahoo! Mail was once known as RocketMail which was one the major rivals of Hotmail. It was originally owned by Four11, a communications company. On March 8, 1997, Yahoo! purchased Four11 and as a result of the purchase, RocketMail was renamed Yahoo! Mail. Today, if you try to visit, you will be automatically directed to Yahoo! Mail.

Yahoo! became a victim of a distributed denial of service attack also known as "DDoS" on February 7, 2000 that caused its website to be unavailable for a few hours. On June 26 of the same year, Yahoo! and Google signed an agreement that stated that Yahoo! was to retain Google's search engine as its default search engine for the world wide web.

If you have used the Internet for searching something since the 1990s, you may have heard of Altavista which is also a search engine. Altavista was once a popular search engine until Google came to the picture. Today, Altavista is a part of Yahoo!. The company acquired the search engine in July 2003 when it bought over its orignal owner, Overture, Inc.

Yahoo! later added more features for its users by acquiring more companies that offered them. The services that Yahoo! acquired includes Fickr, a photo sharing service, Konfabulator which is now known as Yahoo! Widget, and Launchcast which became Yahoo! Music.

Works Consulted:

"Why They Are Named So, http://shobhitsharda.wordpress .com/2009/09/30/why-they-are-n amed-so/ (accessed September 1, 2010).

Wikipedia contributors, "AltaVista," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, x.php?title=AltaVista&oldid=379689583 (accessed September 1, 2010).

Wikipedia contributors, "Yahoo!," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, x.php?title=Yahoo!&oldid=382139657 (accessed September 1, 2010).


Yahoo History

Airbus S.A.S. is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Toulouse, France, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners.

Airbus began as a consortium of aerospace manufacturers. Consolidation of European defence and aerospace companies around the turn of the century allowed the establishment of a simplified joint stock company in 2001, owned by EADS (80%) and BAE Systems (20%). After a protracted sales process BAE sold its shareholding to EADS on 13 October 2006.

Airbus employs around 57,000 people at sixteen sites in four European Union countries: Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Spain. Final assembly production is at Toulouse (France), Hamburg (Germany), Seville (Spain) and Tianjin (China). Airbus has subsidiaries in the United States, Japan and China.

Airbus Industrie began as a consortium of European aviation firms to compete with American companies such as Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Lockheed.

While many European aircraft were innovative, even the most successful had small production runs. In 1991, Jean Pierson, then CEO and Managing Director of Airbus Industrie, described a number of factors which explained the dominant position of American aircraft manufacturers: the land mass of the United States made air transport the favoured mode of travel; a 1942 Anglo-American agreement entrusted transport aircraft production to the US; and World War II had left America with "a profitable, vigorous, powerful and structured aeronautical industry."

In the mid-1960s, tentative negotiations commenced regarding a European collaborative approach. Individual aircraft companies had already envisaged such a requirement; in 1959 Hawker Siddeley had advertised an "Airbus" version of the Armstrong Whitworth AW.660 Argosy, which would "be able to lift as many as 126 passengers on ultra short routes at a direct operating cost of 2d. per seat mile." However, European aircraft manufacturers were aware of the risks of such a development and began to accept, along with their governments, that collaboration was required to develop such an aircraft and to compete with the more powerful US manufacturers. At the 1965 Paris Air Show major European airlines informally discussed their requirements for a new "airbus" capable of transporting 100 or more passengers over short to medium distances at a low cost. The same year Hawker Siddeley (at the urging of the UK government) teamed with Breguet and Nord to study airbus designs. The Hawker Siddeley/Breguet/Nord groups HBN 100 became the basis for the continuation of the project. By 1966 the partners were Sud Aviation (France), Arbeitsgemeinschaft Airbus, later Deutsche Airbus (Germany) and Hawker Siddeley (UK). A request for funding was made to the three governments in October 1966.

By early 1967 the "A300" label began to be applied and the proposal developed into a 320 seat, twin engined airliner. On 25 July 1967 the three governments agreed to proceed to the definition stage with the mission statement:

"For the purpose of strengthening European co-operation in the field of aviation technology and thereby promoting economic and technological progress in Europe, to take appropriate measures for the joint development and production of an airbus."

Shortly after the agreement, Roger Béteille was appointed technical director of the A300 project.Béteille developed a division of labour which would be the basis of Airbus' production for years to come: France would manufacture the cockpit, flight control and the lower centre section of the fuselage; Hawker Siddeley, whose Trident technology had impressed him, was to manufacture the wings; Germany should make the forward and rear fuselage sections, as well as the upper centre section; The Dutch would make the flaps and spoilers; finally Spain (yet to become a full partner) would make the horizontal tailplane. On 26 September 1967 the German, French and British governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding in London which allowed continued development studies. This also confirmed Sud Aviation as the "lead company", that France and the UK would each have a 37.5% workshare with Germany taking 25%, and that Rolls-Royce would manufacture the engines.

In the two years following this agreement, both the British and French governments expressed doubts about the project. The MoU had stated that 75 orders must be achieved by 31 July 1968. However lukewarm airline support for a 300 seat Airbus A300 lead to the partners submitting the A250 proposal (what became the A300B) for a 250 seat airliner powered by existing engines. This dramatically reduced development costs, as the Rolls-Royce RB207 represented a large proportion of those costs. The RB207 had also suffered difficulties, since Rolls-Royce was concentrating its efforts on the development of the related RB211 for the Lockheed L-1011. The French government threatened to withdraw from the project due to the concern over funding development of the Airbus A300, Concorde and the Dassault Mercure concurrently, but was persuaded otherwise. Having announced its concern at the A300B proposal in December 1968, and fearing it would not recoup its investment due to lack of sales, the British government announced its withdrawal on 10 April 1969. Germany took this opportunity to increase its share of the project to 50%. Given the participation by Hawker Siddeley up to that point, France and Germany were reluctant to take over its wing design. Thus the British company was allowed to continue as a privileged subcontractor.Hawker Siddeley invested GB£35 million in tooling and, requiring more capital, received a GB£35 million loan from the German government.

Formation of Airbus
Airbus Industrie was formally established as a Groupement d'Interet Economique (Economic Interest Group or GIE) on 18 December 1970. It had been formed by a government initiative between France, Germany and the UK that originated in 1967. The name "Airbus" was taken from a non-proprietary term used by the airline industry in the 1960s to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, for this term was acceptable to the French linguistically. Aerospatiale and Deutsche Airbus each took a 36.5% share of production work, Hawker Siddeley 20% and Fokker-VFW 7%. Each company would deliver its sections as fully equipped, ready-to-fly items. In October 1971 the Spanish company CASA acquired a 4.2% share of Airbus Industrie, with Aerospatiale and Deutsche Airbus reducing their stakes to 47.9%. In January 1979 British Aerospace, which had absorbed Hawker Siddeley in 1977, acquired a 20% share of Airbus Industrie. The majority shareholders reduced their shares to 37.9%, while CASA retained its 4.2%.

In 1972, the A300 made its maiden flight and the first production model, the A300B2 entered service in 1974. Initially the success of the consortium was poor but by 1979 there were 81 aircraft in service. It was the launch of the A320 in 1981 that guaranteed the status of Airbus as a major player in the aircraft market - the aircraft had over 400 orders before it first flew, compared to 15 for the A300 in 1972.

Transition to Airbus SAS
The retention of production and engineering assets by the partner companies in effect made Airbus Industrie a sales and marketing company. This arrangement led to inefficiencies due to the inherent conflicts of interest that the four partner companies faced; they were both GIE shareholders and subcontractors to the consortium. The companies collaborated on development of the Airbus range, but guarded the financial details of their own production activities and sought to maximise the transfer prices of their sub-assemblies.

In the early 1990s the then Airbus CEO Jean Pierson argued that the GIE should be abandoned and Airbus established as a conventional company. However, the difficulties of integrating and valuing the assets of four companies, as well as legal issues, delayed the initiative. In December 1998, when it was reported that British Aerospace and DASA were close to merging, Aérospatiale paralysed negotiations on the Airbus conversion; the French company feared the combined BAe/DASA, which would own 57.9% of Airbus, would dominate the company and it insisted on a 50/50 split.However, the issue was resolved in January 1999 when BAe abandoned talks with DASA in favour of merging with Marconi Electronic Systems to become BAE Systems. Then in 2000 three of the four partner companies (DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, successor to Deutsche Airbus; Aérospatiale-Matra, successor to Sud-Aviation; and CASA) merged to form EADS, simplifying the process. EADS now owned Airbus France, Airbus Deutschland and Airbus España, and thus 80% of Airbus Industrie.BAE Systems and EADS transferred their production assets to the new company, Airbus SAS, in return for shareholdings in that company.

BAE sale and A380 controversy
On 6 April 2006 BBC News reported that BAE Systems was selling its share, then "conservatively valued" at €3.5 billion (US$4.17 bn). The move was seen by many analysts as a move to make partnerships with U.S. firms more feasible, in both financial and political terms. BAE originally sought to agree on a price with EADS through an informal process. However, due to the slow pace of negotiations and disagreements over price, BAE exercised its put option which saw investment bank Rothschild appointed to give an independent valuation.

In June 2006, Airbus became embroiled in a significant international controversy over its announcement of a further delay in the delivery of its A380. In the wake of the announcement, the value of associated stock plunged by up to 25% in a matter of days, although it soon recovered somewhat. Allegations of insider trading on the part of Noël Forgeard, CEO of EADS, its majority corporate parent, promptly followed. The loss of associated value caused great concern on the part of BAE, The Independent describing a "furious row" between BAE and EADS, with BAE believing the announcement was designed to depress the value of its share. A French shareholder group filed a class action lawsuit against EADS in a Dutch court for failing to inform investors of the financial implications of the A380 delays while airlines to which deliveries were promised are expected to demand compensation. As a result, EADS chief Noël Forgeard and Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert announced their resignations on 2 July 2006.

On 2 July 2006 Rothschild valued BAE's stake at £1.9 billion (€2.75 billion), well below the expectation of BAE analysts and even EADS. On 5 July BAE appointed independent auditors to investigate how the value of its share of Airbus had fallen from the original estimates to the Rothschild valuation. They pushed back any potential sale until September at the earliest. On 6 September 2006 BAE agreed to sell its stake in Airbus to EADS for £1.87 billion (€2.75 billion, $3.53 billion), pending BAE shareholder approval. On 4 October shareholders voted in favour of the sale.

On 9 October 2006 Christian Streiff, Humbert's successor, resigned due to differences with parent company EADS over the amount of independence he would be granted in implementing his reorganization plan for Airbus. He will be succeeded by EADS co-CEO Louis Gallois. This brings Airbus under more direct control of its parent company.

CATIA debacle
On 3 October 2006, Christian Streiff announced that the reason for delay of the Airbus A380 was the use of incompatible software used to design the aircraft. Primarily, the Toulouse assembly plant used the latest version 5 of CATIA (made by Dassault), while the design centre at the Hamburg factory used an older incompatible version 4. Parts of the plane were also designed using Parametric Technology Corporation software. The responsibility for the problem was put on the top management for not placing a high enough priority on forcing the compatible software through all parts of the organization. The result was that the 530km of cables wiring throughout the aircraft had to be completely redesigned.

The cost of this debacle is expected to reach $6.1 billion over the next four years. Although none of the orders have been canceled, Airbus will have to pay millions in late-delivery penalties.

2007 restructuring
On 28 February 2007, CEO Louis Gallois announced the company's restructuring plans. Entitled Power8, the plan would see 10,000 jobs cut over four years; 4,300 in France, 3,700 in Germany, 1,600 in the UK and 400 in Spain. 5,000 of the 10,000 would be at sub contractors. Plants at Saint Nazaire, Varel and Laupheim face sell off or closure, while Meaulte, Nordenham and Filton are "open to investors". As of 16 September 2008 the Laupheim plant has been sold to a Thales-Diehl consortium and the operations at Filton have been sold to GKN of the United Kingdom. The announcements have resulted in Airbus unions in France planning to strike, with German Airbus workers possibly following.

Civilian Products
The Airbus product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310. Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320 with its innovative fly-by-wire control system. The A320 has been, and continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate biz-jet market (Airbus Corporate Jet). A stretched version is known as the A321 and is proving competitive with later models of the Boeing 737.

The longer-range products, the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340, have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16 700 kilometres (9000 nautical miles), the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR (range of 17 446 km or 9420 nautical miles). The company is particularly proud of its use of fly-by-wire technologies and the common cockpit systems in use throughout the aircraft family, which make it much easier to train crew.

Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft." Those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9-10% for the NSR. Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements. This "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4-5%, shifting the launch of a A320 replacement to 2017-2018.

In July 2007, Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/A310 production line. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, and A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organization plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff.

Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003.

The final assembly lines of Airbus are in Toulouse (France) (two assembly lines) and Hamburg (Germany) (one assembly line). A fourth final assembly line, for the Airbus A400M, is in Seville (Spain).

Airbus, however, has a number of other plants in different European locations, reflecting its foundation as a consortium. An original solution to the problem of moving aircraft parts between the different factories and the assembly plants is the use of "Beluga" specially enlarged jets, capable of carrying entire sections of fuselage of Airbus aircraft. This solution has also been investigated by Boeing, who retrofitted 3 of their 747 aircraft to transport the components of the 787. An exception to this scheme is the A380, whose fuselage and wings are too large for sections to be carried by the Beluga. Large A380 parts are brought by ship to Bordeaux, and then transported to the Toulouse assembly plant by a specially enlarged road.

North America is an important region to Airbus in terms of both aircraft sales and suppliers. 2,000 of the total of approximately 5,300 Airbus jetliners sold by Airbus around the world, representing every aircraft in its product line from the 107-seat A318 to the 565-passenger A380, are ordered by North American customers. According to Airbus, US contractors, supporting an estimated 120,000 jobs, earned an estimated $5.5 billion (2003) worth of business. For example, one version of the A380 has 51% American content in terms of work share value.

EADS Airbus will be opening an assembly plant in Tianjin, China for its A320 series airliners, to be operational in 2009. AVIC I and AVIC II will be EADS' local partners for the site, to which sub-assemblies will be sent from plants around the world.

A plant will be built in Mobile, Alabama for KC-45A, A330-200MRTT and A330-200F production.

Airbus aircraft numbering system
The Airbus numbering system is an alpha numeric model number followed by a dash and a three digit number.

The model number takes the form of the letter "A" followed by a '3', a digit, then followed normally by a '0' (except in the case of the A319, A321 and A400M) , e.g. A320. The succeeding three digit number represents the aircraft series, the engine manufacturer and engine version number respectively. To use an A320-200 with International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1 engines as an example; The code is 2 for series 200, 3 for IAE and engine version 1, thus the aircraft number is A320-231.

An additional letter is sometimes used. These include, 'C' for a combi version (passenger/freighter), 'F' for a freighter model, 'R' for the long range model, and 'X' for the enhanced model.


Airbus History

Boeing’s origin dates to 1916 when the American timber merchant William E. Boeing founded Aero Products Company shortly after he and U.S. Navy officer Conrad Westervelt developed a single-engine, two-seat seaplane, the B&W. Renamed Boeing Airplane Company in 1917, the enterprise built “flying boats” for the Navy during World War I, and in the 1920s and ’30s it successfully sold its trainers, pursuit planes, observation craft, torpedo planes, and patrol bombers to the U.S. military. In the late 1920s Boeing Airplane expanded into airmail services, and in 1928 William Boeing formed Boeing Airplane & Transport Corporation to encompass both manufacturing and airline operations. The next year the company was renamed United Aircraft and Transport Corporation and acquired several aircraft makers, among them Chance Vought, Avion (which became Northrop Aircraft), Stearman Aircraft, Sikorsky Aviation, engine manufacturer Pratt & Whitney, and aircraft and propeller maker Hamilton Metalplane. In 1931 it combined four smaller airlines under its ownership into United Airlines. In 1934, under new U.S. antitrust legislation (the Air Mail Act of 1934), aircraft manufacture was required to be divorced from air transport, and a newly incorporated Boeing Airplane Company became one of the three companies to emerge from the dissolution of United Aircraft and Transport. The other two were United Aircraft Corporation (now United Technologies Corporation) and United Airlines.

Prior to and during World War II, Boeing Airplane Company built several famous commercial aircraft, such as the Model 247 twin-engine monoplane, the Model 314 flying boat (one of Pan American’s Clipper-class aircraft), and the Model 307 Stratoliner, the first airliner with a pressurized cabin. Boeing’s legendary bombers, the B-17 Flying Fortress (first flown in 1935) and the B-29 Superfortress (1942), played key roles in the Allied war effort in World War II. In the postwar years Boeing continued its military commitments with the six-engine B-47 Stratojet (1947) and eight-engine B-52 Stratofortress (1952) jet bombers.

While Boeing was successfully selling military aircraft, its commercial products lagged behind those of rivals Douglas and Lockheed. To compete in the fierce and expanding world market after World War II, the company decided to develop an airliner, powered by turbojets, with enough range to cross the North Atlantic. After initial hesitation from airlines (most of which had committed to popular and less-expensive propeller-driven airliners from rival firms), but buttressed by sales to the U.S. Air Force in the form of an aerial tanker (the KC-135 Stratotanker), the four-engine plane, designated the 707, went into commercial service in 1958 on a Pan American transatlantic route. The aircraft quickly won over passengers with its shorter flight time and smoother ride and subsequently helped to revolutionize air travel. The 707 was followed by the 727 trijet and 737 twinjet, which entered service in 1964 and 1968, respectively. The 737 was developed into a modern family of planes, and by the end of the 20th century it had become the world’s best-selling commercial aircraft. The high development costs of the 747 “Jumbo Jet,” the world’s first wide-body jetliner, almost forced Boeing into bankruptcy, but, when the 400-seat aircraft went into service in 1970, it allowed airlines to offer affordable long-range air travel for the general public and gave Boeing a monopoly position in this market segment.

In 1960 Boeing purchased Vertol Corporation, then the world’s largest independent manufacturer of helicopters. As Boeing Helicopters, the unit focused on tandem-rotor helicopters and was responsible for the development of the CH-47 Chinook and CH-46 Sea Knight military transport helicopters (first flown in 1961 and 1962, respectively). Boeing’s work on missiles, which began in 1945, resulted in such weapons as the silo-launched Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile (deployed in 1962) and the AGM-86B/C air-launched cruise missile (deployed in 1982).

In the space sector during the 1960s and ’70s, Boeing built the Lunar Orbiters, NASA’s first spacecraft to orbit the Moon (1966–67), and the Mariner 10 space probe, which took the first close-up pictures of the surface of Mercury (1974–75). It also designed and built the first stage of the Saturn V rockets that sent Apollo astronauts to the Moon and the battery-powered Lunar Roving Vehicles used in the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. In 1976 it entered the upper-stage-rocket arena when it was selected to develop the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), a two-stage payload delivery vehicle that can be taken into space by either a space shuttle or a launcher such as the Titan. In 1993 NASA selected Boeing as the prime contractor for the ISS, and two years later the company became responsible for the integration and verification of ISS systems and the design, analysis, manufacture, verification, and delivery of the American components of the station.

In the 1960s and ’70s Boeing also diversified into areas such as marine craft (hydrofoils), transit systems, energy production, and agriculture but later refocused on aerospace. In 1981 the company first flew its twin-engine, wide-body Boeing 767, followed by its twin-engine, single-aisle 757 the next year. By featuring a common flight deck for the two aircraft, pilots who trained and qualified on one plane could also fly the other, thus reducing cost and increasing productivity for carriers. This concept of commonality also applied to more than 40 percent of all 757-767 parts. For its next jetliner, the twin-engine, wide-body 777, Boeing involved several key airlines in the development process in order to ensure that market needs and customer preferences were satisfied. Advances in computers and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software allowed Boeing to develop the 777 entirely on computers without having to build a physical mock-up of the airplane. The first flight took place in 1994.

In 1991 the U.S. Air Force chose a design offered by a consortium comprising Lockheed (later Lockheed Martin), Boeing, and General Dynamics for a twin-engine advanced tactical fighter with stealth features; the aircraft was named the F-22 Raptor and was first flown in 1997. In 1996 Boeing and Lockheed Martin received U.S. defense contracts to build competitive technology demonstrators for the Joint Strike Fighter, intended as an affordable, next-generation, multirole fighter for the armed services of the United States and Britain. In 1995 Boeing joined Ukrainian, Russian, and Anglo-Norwegian partners to form Sea Launch, a commercial launch services company that sent satellites into geostationary orbit from a floating platform at an equatorial site in the Pacific Ocean. Commercial launches began in 1999. In 2000 Boeing acquired the satellite business of Hughes Electronics.

In 2003 Boeing began taking orders for the 787 Dreamliner, a mid-range jet with speeds (Mach 0.85) that would match the fastest wide-body long-range planes but with vastly improved fuel efficiency, thanks to new high-bypass turbofan engines built by Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce and to a radically innovative body design. Roughly half of the primary structure of the 787, including the fuselage section and the wings, is to be made of carbon-fibre and plastic composite materials, lighter than the aluminum alloys used in most aircraft. Many airlines, faced with rising fuel costs, saw the 787 as key to upgrading their fleets in the following decade and ordered hundreds of the new planes. Originally scheduled to be delivered for commercial service starting in 2008, the 787 was beset with several production problems, not the least of which was failure of the crucial fuselage section in stress tests. Consequently Boeing was forced to postpone initial delivery to 2011.


Boeing History

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